Table of Contents:
Apertis provides tools which help with the building of applications targeting a hardware platform; the installation of development versions of the application to the target device and debugging of the application.
These tools are pre-installed in the Apertis SDK. The SDK images shipped by
Apertis are meant to be run in VirtualBox.
They provide a common, reproducible environment to build both platform
packages and application-bundles for Apertis. The tool provides general manual
pages so you can get command information by using
man ade on the SDK.
The Apertis SDK provides sample applications in the
user home folder. Each
application aims to demonstrate how to create a bundle addressing a minimal use
- helloworld-app: A basic sample application which can be used as the basic skeleton for more complex application
- helloworld-simple-agent: An agent-only application which does not provide any graphical program
- helloworld-agentapp: An agent application which interacts with a graphical program
- helloworld-https-client: A basic HTTP(S) client application
- helloworld-persistapp: An application to deal with persistent data
- helloworld-prefsapp: An application to deal with preferences
- notification-example: An example for using Notifications API
- hard-keys-example: An example for using hardware keys
- cpp-library-example: An example for using external library with C++
- helloworld-webapp: A basic Web Runtime application
The custom application framework based on the Canterbury app manager has been
v2022dev2 in favor of upstream components like Flatpak, see the
application framework document for
The sample applications are also available from the Apertis gitlab.
To demonstrate how to use
is going to be used through this document.
Building and running an application bundle with ade on the SDK
To install and test on the SDK,
ade provides the
$ cd /home/user/sample-applications/helloworld-app $ ade configure --native $ ade build --native $ ade export $ ade install --native $ ade run --native
If you want to build the application in debug mode, you should use
ade configure --native --debug.
When the build is done,
ade export will create a bundle file. For the
the command will generate the
org.apertis.HelloWorldApp-0.1.0.bundle file under the current path.
The final step for installation is to run
ade install --native. Then, if it is done successfully,
you can run the application by executing
ade run --native.
Building and debugging app bundles with ade
The following steps can be used to cross-compile an example “Hello World”
agent, deploy it onto the target device and debug it remotely using
the Apertis helper tool called
Debugging on a target device with ADE
Installation of a sysroot
To run/debug an application bundle on a target device, the first step is to download a sysroot.
You can manage sysroots on the SDK with the
ade sysroot command. See
man ade-sysroot for more
details about sysroot-related options.
ade sysroot list is used to check which sysroots are already installed
on the SDK. If there’s no installed sysroot image, the result would be like the following
$ ade sysroot list No sysroot installed in directory /opt/sysroot/.
ade sysroot latest provides the version and downloadable URL of the sysroot image.
$ ade sysroot latest * No distribution specified, defaulting to host distribution * No release version specified, defaulting to host release version * No architecture specified, defaulting to 'armhf' * Checking latest version available for apertis - v2021 (armhf) * Retrieved latest version: apertis v2021 - 20210915.0115 (armhf) * Download URL: https://images.apertis.org/daily/v2021/20210915.0115/armhf/sysroot/sysroot-apertis-v2021-armhf-20210915.0115.tar.gz
ade sysroot install command will do everything needed to install the
latest sysroot version on your SDK, from downloading to installing without any
manual intervention. This will default to installing a sysroot for
using the distribution and release of the current SDK, specify using the
command line arguments if this is not what is required (see
ade sysroot install --help for more information):
$ ade sysroot install * No distribution specified, defaulting to host distribution * No release version specified, defaulting to host release version * No architecture specified, defaulting to 'armhf' * Installing version apertis v2021 - 20210915.0115 (armhf) sysroot.tar.gz |==================================================| 100%
When the installation command has completed its job, the installed status can be checked with
ade sysroot installed.
$ ade sysroot installed * No distribution specified, defaulting to host distribution * No release version specified, defaulting to host release version * No architecture specified, defaulting to 'armhf' * Retrieved current version: apertis v2021 - 20210915.0115 (armhf)
Setting up for a target device
For debugging on a target device, the target should accept remote connections via SSH and allow a specific port for remote gdb connection.
Preparing SSH key-pair on the SDK
SSH key is required to allow connecting from SDK to the target without
requesting password. The following commands will generate a SSH RSA key-pair
(using the legacy PEM format) and copy the generated public key to the target.
In the example, it assumes that the address of the target device is
192.168.0.100. Accept the default settings so as not to require any password
to access the target board.
$ export TARGET_HOST=192.168.0.100 $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -m PEM Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): Created directory '/home/user/.ssh'. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: SHA256:Yd3+gA4ZpWUczdlFKFlaNsyQfET09+UJF5LZYNAaFrI user@apertis The key's randomart image is: +---[RSA 2048]----+ | o=B=^&=o| | *++XBB+.| | =Eo =+ .+| | . + + o.=| | S . o .o| | o o | | . . | | | | | +----[SHA256]-----+ $ ssh-copy-id user@$TARGET_HOST
Installing GDB on a target device
Before starting to debug of target, we need to ensure that
installed on the remote device:
ssh user@$TARGET_HOST "sudo apertis-dev" ssh user@$TARGET_HOST "sudo apt update && sudo apt install gdbserver"
For debugging, we are going to use GDB remote connection so the target application will be started as soon as
ade debug command on the SDK. During GDB startup, the minimal information such as the location of
sysroot, and debugging symbols, should be provided by
$ cat > ~/.gdbinit <<EOF set sysroot /opt/sysroot/apertis/v2021/armhf set debug-file-directory /opt/sysroot/apertis/v2021/armhf/usr/lib/debug EOF
Adding debug symbols for packages needed by the application
This section will become obsolete and will be dropped once https://phabricator.apertis.org/T3819 is fixed.
To get proper backtraces under GDB you need debug symbols for all the libaries in the stack used by your application. The current sysroots do not ship the debug symbols for every installed package and a manual step is needed to fetch them.
From the SDK, the following commands will install the debug symbol packages (
libmildenhall-0-0-dbgsym) on the installed sysroot image.
$ bwrap --bind /opt/sysroot/apertis/v2021/armhf/ / \ --proc /proc \ --dev-bind /dev /dev \ --setenv PATH /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH \ fakeroot apt update $ bwrap --bind /opt/sysroot/apertis/v2021/armhf/ / \ --proc /proc \ --dev-bind /dev /dev \ --setenv PATH /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH \ fakeroot apt install libglib2.0-0-dbgsym libclutter-1.0-0-dbgsym libgtk-3-0-dbgsym libmildenhall-0-0-dbgsym
Debugging on a target board
Debugging an application on a target device is similar to running on the SDK.
For the following example steps, we assume that the desired sysroot has been already installed
on the SDK, that you are using a SSH key-pair to login to your target device, and that the address of
the device is mapped to
TARGET_HOST environment variable.
To build an application bundle for your target device in debug mode, the following
ade commands will
$ ade configure --debug --device user@$TARGET_HOST $ ade build --debug --device user@$TARGET_HOST $ ade install --device user@$TARGET_HOST
debug command for a target. As we mentioned above, it requires to allow
connecting to GDB remote port (default:1234). Then, the command will bring you to GDB remote prompt.
$ ade debug --device user@$TARGET_HOST