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Starting with Apertis v2022dev2, Flatpak includes the ability to distribute application bundles verified with ed25519 signatures.

The current implementation is a technology preview and it is expected to stabilize during the release cycles leading to the v2022 stable release. The prototype is already available in Apertis as documented here, but it may be subject to potentially incompatible changes during the upstream review process.

This signature system relies on OSTree’s library functions. Therefore, the key generation and storage process is identical to what is described in the System updates and rollback design document.

Flatpak application signatures occur on several levels:

  • single commits
  • whole repositories
  • single-file bundles

Please note, however, that GPG signatures are disabled on Apertis. It is still possible to pull from GPG-signed repositories, but those signatures won’t be verified. Similarly, it is not possible to sign flatpak applications using GPG.

Creating signed flatpak applications

The simplest way to create a signed flatpak is to use flatpak-builder with the --sign=<SECRETKEY> command-line argument, where <SECRETKEY> is the base64-encoded secret Ed25519 key. This ensures the OSTree commit and summary are properly signed:

flatpak-builder --repo=myrepo --sign=m8/rp9I9ax2w81yujZyeXTfZlbeBjEBUPQSQKo14iHgHdrzpKYH6xvL83midrFNeMrU4QBtk4jZ+x2veQoP4oQ== build-dir org.example.sampleapplication.yaml

For more advanced usage, the same command-line option can also be used with the following flatpak commands:

  • flatpak build-bundle
  • flatpak build-commit-from
  • flatpak build-export
  • flatpak build-import-bundle
  • flatpak build-sign
  • flatpak build-update-repo

These commands allow one to create Ed25519-signed commits from an unsigned repository or bundle, or to create signed bundles as explained below.

Multiple occurrences of the --sign option are allowed in to order to permit multiple signatures of each object.

More details about those commands are available in the Flatpak documentation.

Publishing signed flatpaks applications

Publishing a repository

When distributing several applications, it can be useful to publish the whole repository using a .flatpakrepo file.

The only difference here is that the GPGKey=... line must be replaced with SignatureKey=<PUBLICKEY>, where <PUBLICKEY> is the base64-encoded public Ed25519 key.

Such a .flatpakrepo file could be:

[Flatpak Repo]
Title=Sample Repository
Comment=Sample Flatpak repository signed with Ed25519
Description=This Flatpak repository provides applications signed with Ed25519

Publishing a single application

One convenient way to distribute single flatpak applications is to use .flatpakref files. Those files include all necessary information for flatpak to be able to install and update the application.

Exactly as it is done with with .flatpakrepo files, using SignatureKey=<PUBLICKEY> instead of GPGKey=... will instruct flatpak to enable Ed25519 signature verification for this repository.

This line will instruct flatpak to add the corresponding configuration keys to the remote and perform signature verification when installing and/or updating this application.

Such a .flatpakref file could be:

[Flatpak Ref]
Title=Sample application from our example repo

Publishing a bundle

Flatpak applications can also be distributed as single-file bundles, which can be created using the flatpak build-bundle command. As previously mentioned, these bundles can be signed by adding the --sign=<SECRETKEY> option to the command invocation:

flatpak build-bundle --sign=m8/rp9I9ax2w81yujZyeXTfZlbeBjEBUPQSQKo14iHgHdrzpKYH6xvL83midrFNeMrU4QBtk4jZ+x2veQoP4oQ== myrepo example.bundle org.example.sampleapplication

However, when publishing a signed flatpak bundle, the corresponding public key has to be stored in a location easily accessible to the final user for signature verification, as the bundle file itself is signed and doesn’t provide any mean to retrieve the associated public key.

Installing a signed flatpak

Configuring a remote repository

If the repository publisher provides a .flatpakrepo file including the public key, then no action is needed other than running flatpak remote-add <REPONAME> <REPOFILE>.

However, if such a file is not available, one must add the --sign-verify command-line option to the flatpak remote-add command in order to provide either the public key directly, or a file containing the public key:

  • --sign-verify=ed25519=inline:<PUBLICKEY> is used to directly specify the public key needed to verify this repository
  • --sign-verify=ed25519=file:<PATH> can be used to point flatpak to a file containing a list of public keys (base64-encoded, one key per line), among which at least one can be used to verify signatures for this repository
flatpak remote-add example example.flatpakrepo


flatpak remote-add --sign-verify=ed25519=inline:B3a86SmB+sby/N5onaxTXjK1OEAbZOI2fsdr3kKD+KE= example

Multiple --sign-verify occurrences are allowed in order to specify as many public keys as needed. This can be useful when a new signature key is being deployed, while the old one is still in use: by specifying both the old and the new key, users can make sure at least one of those will be able to verify the signatures. That way, once the old key is revoked and only the new one is used for signing the repository, the corresponding remote will keep working as expected.

This option can also be added when using the flatpak remote-modify command.

Installing a signed application

Similarly to the process of using .flatpakrepo files, when installing a single application using a .flatpakref file including the public key, no additional action is needed. Flatpak will automatically verify Ed25519 signatures using the provided public key:

flatpak install --from example.flatpakref

When the application is installed from a previously configured repository, signature verification is also automated, as long as the corresponding public key has been imported into the remote’s configuration:

flatpak install org.example.sampleapplication

If the public key has not been previously imported into the remote’s configuration, one can also use the --sign-verify command-line option:

flatpak install --sign-verify=ed25519=inline:B3a86SmB+sby/N5onaxTXjK1OEAbZOI2fsdr3kKD+KE= org.example.sampleapplication

Installing a signed bundle

Flatpak bundles are not installed from a repository like most flatpak applications, but from a single, optionally signed, file. As there is no repository configuration to import public keys from, the user needs to specify the relevant public keys using the --sign-verify command-line option as stated above.

flatpak install --sign-verify=ed25519=inline:B3a86SmB+sby/N5onaxTXjK1OEAbZOI2fsdr3kKD+KE= --bundle example.bundle

This option works the same way with both flatpak build-import-bundle and flatpak install commands.


Flatpak reference documentation: