Apertis is a Debian derivative distribution geared towards the creation of product-specific images for ARM (both the 32bit ARMv7 and 64-bit ARMv8 versions using the hardfloat ABI) and Intel x86-64 (64-bit) systems.

Apertis v2021.0 is the first stable release of the Apertis v2021 stable release flow. Apertis is committed to maintaining the v2021 release stream up to the end of 2022.

This Apertis release is built on top of Debian Buster with several customisations and the Linux kernel 5.10.x LTS series.

Test results for the v2021.0 release are available in the following test reports:

Release flow

  • 2019 Q4: v2021dev0
  • 2020 Q1: v2021dev1
  • 2020 Q2: v2021dev2
  • 2020 Q3: v2021dev3
  • 2020 Q4: v2021pre
  • 2021 Q1: v2021.0
  • 2021 Q2: v2021.1
  • 2021 Q3: v2021.2
  • 2021 Q4: v2021.3
  • 2022 Q1: v2021.4
  • 2022 Q2: v2021.5
  • 2022 Q3: v2021.6
  • 2022 Q4: v2021.7

Release downloads

Apertis v2021 images
Intel 64-bit minimal target base SDK SDK
ARM 32-bit (U-Boot) minimal target
ARM 64-bit (U-Boot) minimal
ARM 64-bit (Raspberry Pi) minimal target

The Intel minimal and target images are tested on the reference hardware (MinnowBoard Turbot Dual-Core), but they can run on any UEFI-based x86-64 system. The sdk image is tested under VirtualBox.

Apertis v2021 repositories

deb https://repositories.apertis.org/apertis/ v2021 target development sdk hmi
deb https://repositories.apertis.org/apertis/ v2021-security target development sdk hmi

New features

Resilient upgrades with atomic rollback on Renesas R-Car

The OSTree-based update manager is now fully supported on Renesas R-Car boards in addition to the i.MX6 SABRE Lite boards already supported in previous releases.

Introduced in v2021pre.

Enhanced offline updates signatures and encryption

During the v2021 development the Apertis team extended the protection offered by the static delta bundle signature mechanism in OSTree used for offline updates to also cover the bundle metadata, including the information which defines whether the update is appropriate for the current device.

The feature has been developed upstream first and is part of the latest OSTree releases.

To add another layer of protection, offline update bundles can now be encrypted to make their contents inaccessible from unauthorized parties.

Keys need to be stored securely on devices using solutions like trusted computing keyrings, but even when secure boot and trusted computing are not available encryption can help to discourage attackers.

Introduced in v2021dev2 and v2021dev3.

New Rhosydd data model and API based on the W3C VISS specification

Rhosydd, the vehicle device daemon implementing the sensors and actuators API has been rebased to the data model from the latest W3C specification, as described in the design document.

Check the Vehicle Signal specification for more information about the data model that replaces the old Vehicle Data specification.

Introduced in v2021dev3.

Technology preview: 64-bit Raspberry Pi boards support

Apertis now ships rpi64 images for the widely available 64-bit Raspberry Pi boards to make experimenting on real Arm hardware as accessible as possible.

Resilient updates and rollbacks via OSTree and U-Boot are supported on the Raspberry Pi boards, joining the ranks of the other Apertis Arm boards.

Unlike the other fully supported Apertis platforms, the rpi64 images are not yet part of the daily automated test runs on LAVA.

Introduced in v2021dev3.

Technology preview: Maynard and the AGL compositor

A modern, extensible Wayland compositor and a new reference shell are available in this release, as described in the document about the new Application framework.

A screenshot of the Maynard shell and launcher

The AGL compositor and the Maynard shell on top of it will become the default in the v2022 cycle, replacing the Mildenhall compositor.

Introduced in v2021pre.

Technology preview: Secure boot on i.MX6 SABRE Lite

A first iteration of trusted boot on the i.MX6 SABRE Lite boards is now part of the minimal and target ARM 32-bit OSTree images.

Based on the High Assurance Boot v4 (HABv4) functionality embedded in the boot ROM, Apertis can now verify the trust chain of the bootloader, the kernel, the dtb and the initramfs.

Check the documentation about the implementation and the steps to prepare a device for testing the secure boot functionality.

At the moment no checks are done after that to validate the root filesystem and its contents, including kernel modules loaded on-demand.

Introduced in v2021dev1.

Build and integration

GitLab CI/CD image building pipelines

From this release Apertis has fully switched to GitLab CI/CD to build the release artifacts, and Jenkins is no longer supported.

Among the advantages of GitLab CI/CD:

  • flexible access controls
  • gated merge requests on successful builds to avoid breakage on the main branch
  • improved downstream customizability
  • autoscaling cloud workers
  • multi-project orchestration

Introduced in v2021dev1.

Long term reproducibility of image builds

The GitLab CI/CD pipelines used to build the Apertis v2021 release make reproducing past builds easily and reliably, as described in the Long term reproducibility document.

Introduced in v2021pre.

Flatpak runtime and application build pipeline

As described in the Application framework document, Flatpak fills a key role to decouple application deployment for the base OS.

To make the adoption of Flatpak easier, Apertis provides a reference pipeline to build runtimes and application based on packages in the Apertis repository.

A Flatpak runtime shipping the Mildenhall libraries is also available to help the transition from the Canterbury application framework and the Mildenhall sample applications have been ported to it.

Introduced in v2021dev2.

QA

Automated OTA updates testcases (v2021dev2)

The previously manual testcase exercising the Over-the-Air update functionality are now fully automated and run as part of the daily test rounds on LAVA.

Introduced in v2021dev2.

Deprecations and ABI/API breaks

Breaking changes

Jenkins pipelines are no longer supported

With the introduction of the GitLab CI/CD image building pipelines, building Apertis images on Jenkins is no longer supported.

FIT support is mandatory for the ARM 32-bit OSTree images

With the introduction of secure boot for i.MX6 SABRE Lite boards in v2021dev1 the Linux kernel must now be provided in the FIT (Flattened Image Tree) format.

OSTree offline update bundle format change

The OSTree static bundle format used prior to v2021pre is not supported and the format that got landed upstream in the libostree 2020.7 release should be used instead.

Breaks

Image builds now happen on GitLab CI/CD

The Jenkins based pipelines are no longer supported and GitLab CI/CD should be used instead.

OSTree signing API changes

During the upstreaming process the new OSTree signing API that Apertis shipped in the previous cycle as a preview some API changes have been requested.

The version of OSTree in v2021 now reflects the upstream API and users of the new signing API will need to be adjusted.

Rhosydd VISS API

The API and the data model of Rhosydd has changed to reflect the W3C VISS specification.

Infrastructure

Apertis Docker images

The Apertis Docker images provide a unified and easily reproducible build environment for developers and services.

As of today, this includes the apertis-base, apertis-image-builder, apertis-package-source-builder, apertis-flatdeb-builder, apertis-documentation-builder, and apertis-testcases-builder, Docker images.

Apertis infrastructure tools

The Apertis v2021 infrastructure repository provides packages for the required versions of ostree-push and ostree for Debian Buster:

deb https://repositories.apertis.org/infrastructure-v2021/ buster infrastructure

Images

Image daily builds, as well as release builds can be found at https://images.apertis.org/

Image build tools can be found in the Apertis tools repositories.

Infrastructure overview

The Image build infrastructure document provides an overview of the image building process and the involved services.

Known issues

High (9)

  • T7014 bluez-phone: Message Access Profile test_profile_map_mse fails when there are many contacts
  • T7623 apparmor-pulseaudio: test failed
  • T7729 Failed to attach Bluetooth dongle on VirtualBox 6.1.16
  • T7781 aum-ota-api: test failed due to new bootcount test needing a newer uboot
  • T7783 ade-commands: test failed
  • T7801 agl-compositor test fails
  • T7802 flatpak install -y org.apertis.mildenhall.Platform org.apertis.mildenhall.Sdk
  • T7803 sdk-debos-image-building: test failed with “Failed to register machine: Unit machine-root.scope already exists”
  • T7816 Polling issues faced in apertis hawkbit agent

Normal (63)

  • T2896 Crash when initialising egl on ARM target
  • T2930 Develop test case for out of screen events in Wayland images
  • T3210 Fix Tracker testcase to not download media files from random HTTP user folders
  • T3233 Ribchester: deadlock when calling RemoveApp() right after RollBack()
  • T3321 libgles2-vivante-dev is not installable
  • T3920 arm-linux-gnueabihf-pkg-config does not work with sysroots installed by ade
  • T4092 Containers fail to load on Gen4 host
  • T4293 Preseed action is needed for Debos
  • T4307 ribchester-core causes apparmor denies on non-btrfs minimal image
  • T4422 do-branching fails at a late stage cloning OBS binary repos
  • T4444 A 2-3 second lag between the speakers is observed when a hfp connection is made over bluetooth
  • T4660 Eclipse Build is not working for HelloWorld App
  • T4693 Not able to create namespace for AppArmor container on the internal mx6qsabrelite images with proprietary kernel
  • T5487 Wi-Fi search button is missing in wifi application
  • T5748 System users are shipped in /usr/etc/passwd instead of /lib/passwd
  • T5863 Songs/Videos don't play on i.MX6 with Frampton on internal images
  • T5896 sdk-dbus-tools-bustle testcase is failing
  • T5897 apparmor-ofono test fails
  • T5900 evolution-sync-bluetooth test fails
  • T5901 eclipse-plugins-apertis-management package is missing
  • T5906 Video does not stream in WebKit on the i.MX6 internal images
  • T5931 connman-usb-tethering test fails
  • T6001 eclipse-plugins-remote-debugging test fails
  • T6008 The pacrunner package used for proxy autoconfiguration is not available
  • T6024 folks-inspect: command not found
  • T6052 Multimedia playback is broken on the internal i.MX6 images (internal 3.14 ADIT kernel issue)
  • T6077 youtube Videos are not playing on upstream webkit2GTK
  • T6078 Page scroll is lagging in Minibrowser on upstream webkit2GTK
  • T6111 traprain: 7_traprain test failed
  • T6243 AppArmor ubercache support is no longer enabled after 18.12
  • T6291 Generated lavaphabbridge error report email provides wrong link for full report link
  • T6292 gettext-i18n: test failed
  • T6349 sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint: 3_sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint test failed
  • T6366 sdk-cross-compilation: 10_sdk-cross-compilation test failed
  • T6444 aum-update-rollback-tests/arm64,amd64: Automatic power cut test should be reworked to reduce the speed of delta read
  • T6446 aum-update-rollback-tests/amd64: DNS not available in LAVA tests after reboot
  • T6620 Repeatedly plugging and unplugging a USB flash drive on i.MX6 (Sabrelite) results in USB failure
  • T6662 SDK: command-not-found package is broken
  • T6669 Stop building cross compilers tools and libraries for not supported platforms
  • T6768 Fix the kernel command line generation in OSTRee for FIT image
  • T6773 HAB testing: the unsigned image may pass validation in several circumstances
  • T6783 Kernel trace on armhf board with attached screen
  • T6795 SabreLite failing to boot due to failing “to start udev Coldplug all Devices”
  • T6806 HAB on SabreLite in open state accepts any signed kernel regardless of the signing key
  • T6885 gitlab-rulez fails to set location of the gitlab-ci.yaml on first run
  • T6887 ARM64 target does not reboot automatically
  • T6961 audio-backhandling feature fails
  • T7000 DNS resolution does not work in Debos on some setups
  • T7012 Apparmor Denied session logs keep popping up on the terminal while executing tests
  • T7016 network proxy for browser application is not resolving on mildenhall-compositor
  • T7127 apparmor-functional-demo: test failed
  • T7128 apparmor-session-lockdown-no-deny
  • T7129 apparmor-tumbler: test failed
  • T7333 apparmor-geoclue: test failed
  • T7503 Failed to unmount /usr on ostree-based images: Device or resource busy log is seen on rebooting
  • T7512 debos sometimes fails to mount things
  • T7530 ADE can't download amd64 sysroot.
  • T7617 frome: test failed
  • T7721 Fakemachine in debos immediately powers off and hangs in v2021 and v2022dev1 when using UML on the runners
  • T7776 On executing system-update test on hawkbit-agent wrong delta is selected
  • T7785 DNS over TLS does not work on systemd-resolve
  • T7812 The dlt-daemon build in the devroot testcase fails due to lack of pandoc on Arm platforms
  • T7815 scan-copyright fails to detect (L)GPL-3 code in util-linux