Apertis is a Debian derivative distribution geared towards the creation of product-specific images for ARM (both the 32bit ARMv7 and 64-bit ARMv8 versions using the hardfloat ABI) and Intel x86-64 (64-bit) systems.
Apertis v2022.0 is the first stable release of the Apertis v2022 stable release flow. Apertis is committed to maintaining the v2022 release stream up to the end of 2023.
This Apertis release is built on top of Debian Bullseye with several customisations and the Linux kernel 5.15.x LTS series.
Test results for the v2022.0 release are available in the following test reports:
- 2020 Q4: v2022dev0
- 2021 Q1: v2022dev1
- 2021 Q2: v2022dev2
- 2021 Q3: v2022dev3
- 2021 Q4: v2022pre
- 2022 Q1: v2022.0
- 2022 Q2: v2022.1
- 2022 Q3: v2022.2
- 2022 Q4: v2022.3
- 2023 Q1: v2022.4
- 2023 Q2: v2022.5
- 2023 Q3: v2022.6
- 2023 Q4: v2022.7
|Apertis v2022.0 images|
|Intel 64-bit||fixedfunction||hmi||base SDK||SDK|
|ARM 32-bit (U-Boot)||fixedfunction||hmi|
|ARM 64-bit (U-Boot)||fixedfunction|
|ARM 64-bit (Raspberry Pi)||fixedfunction||hmi|
hmi images are tested on the
reference hardware (MinnowBoard Turbot Dual-Core),
but they can run on any UEFI-based x86-64 system. The
sdk image is
tested under VirtualBox.
Apertis v2022.0 repositories
deb https://repositories.apertis.org/apertis/ v2022 target development sdk
Flatpak as the reference application framework
Introduced in v2021.0 as an alternative to the Canterbury/Ribchester application framework, Flatpak now has fully replaced it as the reference application framework for Apertis, as planned in the Application framework document.
is also available for application authors to distribute their Apertis-based
applications on top of any Flatpak-supporting system.
Two variants are provided:
org.apertis.headless.Sdk: A basic runtime with some common libraries that headless applications may use.
org.apertis.hmi.Sdk: A larger runtime for graphical applications, based on the headless one.
The “Creating Flatpak Runtimes and Applications guide covers in detail how the runtimes are built, how custom runtimes can be created and extended and how to build applications using them.
Introduced in v2022dev2 and v2022pre.
During this quarter most guides and documents on the Apertis website have been reviewed and updated to reflect the changes in development and workflows due to the move to Flatpak.
AGL-compositor + Maynard as the reference graphical shell
A modern, extensible Wayland compositor and a new reference shell now replace the Mildenhall HMI, as described in the document about the new Application framework.
Shipped as a technology preview in v2021.0, Maynard has been the default shell on the HMI images since v2022dev2.
Compared to v2022pre, the Flatpak support in AGL-compositor has been improved to properly handle applications that do not set an application-id based on the desktop file. With this new support, Flatpak applications can be launched and handled by the system as any other application.
PipeWire+WirePlumber as the reference audio manager
From this release the Pipewire multimedia manager and the WirePlumber policy manager replace PulseAudio as the default audio manager shipped on the reference images, as described in the audio management concept document.
PipeWire grants more efficiency and flexibility compared to PulseAudio, with better integration in container-based application frameworks like Flatpak, while WirePlumber enable developers to define complex policies with ease.
pipewire-pulse applications using the PulseAudio protocol will
automatically and transparently be able to interact with PipeWire with no
changes on the client side.
Introduced in v2022dev2.
Modernization of GPL-3-free replacements
One of the main source of deviation from Debian in Apertis is due to the different licensing expectations regarding GPL-3 components and the Apertis v2022.0 release ships with a massive modernization of the approach used to meet such expectations.
Compared to Debian, Apertis v2022.0 avoids the GPL-3 terms in its target images by:
- adopting OpenSSL rather than GnuTLS where the GPL-2 terms are not suitable, as described in details in the document about licensing compliance for the TLS stack (introduced in v2022dev2);
- replacing GNU Coreutils with the Rust-based coreutils implementation as covered in the dedicated document (introduced in v2022dev3);
- using the Rust-based Sequoia implementation of OpenPGP to avoid GnuPG (introduced in v2022dev3)
The GPL-3 GNU Coreutils and GnuPG remain available in the
component of the packaging archive and are still used during package builds
where the GPL-3 licensing is not a concern, to maximise compatibility.
Compared to v2022pre,
rust-coreutils has been updated to the latest upstream
version to provide better compatibility with GNU version. The package now also
ships a multi-call binary to minimize the storage overhead due to the
statically linked nature of Rust executables.
The GPL-3 Deltas Assessment document captures the remaining issues that will be addressed in the v2023 cycle.
WPA3 support in ConnMan
Apertis now ships support for WPA3/SAE in ConnMan. By basing the work on top of the
the Tizen project
the Apertis team landed the
implementation of WPA3-SAE authentication
WPA3-Personal transition mode
to upstream ConnMan and made it available in the Apertis
Introduced in v2022dev2 and v2022dev3
As part of the image building pipeline Apertis now also produces detailed reports listing the licenses covering the binaries shipped on each image.
The extracted information is stored in a per-image JSON file which documents the licenses that affect each binary program or library shipped in the image itself and that can be easily used to generate human-readable reports or to add automated checks to ensure compliance to licensing policies.
Introduced in v2022dev1.
Fixed Function and HMI images to replace minimal and target
Based on the Apertis Platform Technical Vision the set of reference images is now composed of:
- Fixed Function
This gives a clearer purpose to each image type, providing a better guide to developers looking at the reference images for their product recipes.
The Fixed Function image is meant to represent images that focus on a single,
specific purpose and are built monolithically, with all the components
subject to the same lifecycle. The reference use-case for Fixed Function image
has been selected to be as simple as possible while still being meaningful,
and the choice fell on serving a static web page over HTTP.
The narrow goal of the Fixed Function gives the opportunity to further
optimize it compared to the fuzzy, broad definition of the
in previous releases.
The HMI images focus instead on more elaborate and featureful use-cases: they boot up in a graphical UI provided by the AGL compositor framework with the Maynard shell and use the Flatpak application framework to handle dynamically evolving workloads with life cycles decoupled from the one for the base operating system.
Introduced in v2022dev3.
Improved Raspberry Pi support
Users of Raspberry Pi will find a better support in Apertis including:
- Support for RPi 400 model.
- Graphical interface now booting without input devices attached.
- Fixed USB support.
- Documentation to bring up Raspberry Pi 4.
Introduced in v2022dev3.
iMX8MN Variscite Symphony and BSH SMM S2 PRO board support
Designed by BSH, the SystemMaster S2 Pro is an add-on board which provides
input and output interfaces to a dedicated carrier board. Apertis users can now
run a headless system using the
fixedfunction image, which includes hardware
support for wifi, bluetooth and audio.
Support has also been added for the iMX8MN Variscite Symphony board.
Check the setup notes for more info:
Introduced in v2022dev3 and v2022pre.
OVA VirtualBox SDK appliance
To make the initial setup easier for users of the Apertis SDK with VirtualBox, a full OVA appliance file is provided. Developers can now create their Apertis virtual machine in Virtualbox with just a double click instead of having to manually set all the right parameters before importing the actual disk image.
Introduced in v2022dev2.
Apertis Update Manager improvements
During the release several improvements have been made to make Apertis Update Manager have similar behavior on boards that uses U-boot and UEFI. In this context now the boot limit in UEFI board has been updated to match the U-boot’s default.
In addition to this, the ref-binding selection on successful upgrades has been fixed to correctly upgrade from development to stable releases.
Build and integration
Improve LAVA test development
Apertis uses LAVA tests to ensure the quality of its releases by running automated tests on its images. These tests should run in different boards with different architectures with the different types of images. In order to handle this in an efficient way, the concept of LAVA profile was improved to allow developers to choose the tests that need to be run on the different scenarios in a simpler and more consistent way.
Deprecations and ABI/API breaks
No known regressions.
No known deprecations
GPL-3 replacements revamp on target images (HMI and FixedFunction)
On target images (HMI and FixedFunction) the GPL-3 GNU Coreutils and GnuPG tools are no longer available.
rust-coreutils package installed on the images is meant to be a fully
compatible replacement for GNU Coreutils, but some differences still persist.
GNU Coreutils and GnuPG remain available in the
repository and are used by default at build time on OBS and on the SDK images.
Some libraries (
glib-networking in particular) have been switched to their
OpenSSL backends to avoid the LGPL-3 terms of the GnuTLS stack when linked
from non-GPL-2 programs.
Introduced in v2022dev2 and v2022dev3.
Mildenhall HMI no longer available
The Maynard shell on top of the modular AGL compositor replaces the Mildenhall compositor and launcher. as described in the document about the new Application framework.
Upstream toolkits like GTK are recommended to replace any usage of the Mildenhall UI toolkit.
The existing Mildenhall-based applications can still be used through Flatpak, using the v2021 runtime.
Introduced in v2022dev2.
Canterbury application framework no longer available
Flatpak is now the reference application framework, replacing Canterbury/Ribchester.
Introduced in v2022dev2.
PipeWire used by default instead of Pulseaudio
Audio management is now handled with PipeWire and WirePlumber on all images.
Pulseaudio will remain available in the package repositories, even if not installed by defrault.
Introduced in v2022dev2.
Apertis Docker images
The Apertis Docker images provide a unified and easily reproducible build environment for developers and services.
As of today, this includes the
Apertis infrastructure tools
The Apertis v2022 infrastructure repository
provides packages for the required versions of
ostree for Debian Buster:
deb https://repositories.apertis.org/infrastructure-v2022/ buster infrastructure
Image daily builds, as well as release builds can be found at https://images.apertis.org/
The Apertis Image Recipes provides an overview of the image building process and the involved services.
- T7879 sdk-debos-image-building: test failed
- T8456 aum-api: test failed
- T8470 secure-boot-imx6 test failed
- T8530 evolution-sync-bluetooth test not available in v2022 and v2023dev1 testcase page
- T8545 BOM file generation pick default license
- T8547 sanity-check: test failed
- T8603 AUM fails to detect rollback on Lava for RPi64 board
- T8604 AUM tests fails on Lava for RPi64 board
- T8610 Architecture dependent license files at generated packages are created at architecture independent locations
- T8615 aum-ota-api: test failed
- T8625 gstreamer1-0-decode: test failed
- T8654 Texlive-extra package trigger again and again on OBS.
- T8660 Random FS issues on OSTree images
- T8662 aum-rollback-blacklist: test failed
- T8669 aum-ota-out-of-space: test failed
- T2896 Crash when initialising egl on ARM target
- T3233 Ribchester: deadlock when calling RemoveApp() right after RollBack()
- T3321 libgles2-vivante-dev is not installable
- T3920 arm-linux-gnueabihf-pkg-config does not work with sysroots installed by
- T4092 Containers fail to load on Gen4 host
- T4307 ribchester-core causes apparmor denies on non-btrfs minimal image
- T4422 do-branching fails at a late stage cloning OBS binary repos
- T4693 Not able to create namespace for AppArmor container on the internal mx6qsabrelite images with proprietary kernel
- T5487 Wi-Fi search button is missing in wifi application
- T5748 System users are shipped in /usr/etc/passwd instead of /lib/passwd
- T5896 sdk-dbus-tools-bustle testcase is failing
- T5897 apparmor-ofono test fails
- T5900 evolution-sync-bluetooth test fails
- T5931 connman-usb-tethering test fails
- T6024 sdk-dbus-tools-d-feet: folks-inspect: command not found
- T6077 youtube Videos are not playing on upstream webkit2GTK
- T6078 Page scroll is lagging in Minibrowser on upstream webkit2GTK
- T6111 traprain: 7_traprain test failed
- T6292 gettext-i18n: test failed
- T6349 sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint: 3_sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint test failed
- T6366 sdk-cross-compilation: 10_sdk-cross-compilation test failed
- T6768 Fix the kernel command line generation in OSTRee for FIT image
- T6773 HAB testing: the unsigned image may pass validation in several circumstances
- T6795 SabreLite failing to boot due to failing “to start udev Coldplug all Devices”
- T6806 HAB on SabreLite in open state accepts any signed kernel regardless of the signing key
- T6961 audio-backhandling feature fails
- T7000 DNS resolution does not work in Debos on some setups
- T7016 network proxy for browser application is not resolving on mildenhall-compositor
- T7512 debos sometimes fails to mount things
- T7721 Fakemachine in debos immediately powers off and hangs in v2021 and v2022dev1 when using UML on the runners
- T7785 DNS over TLS does not work on systemd-resolve
- T7817 rhosydd: test failed
- T7819 newport: test failed
- T7852 Investigate test failure TestGetSourceMount
- T7859 spymemcached: Investigate failing test due to hostname mismatch
- T7872 Error building package ruby-redis on OBS
- T7923 Gitlab pipeline OBS job reported “success” but OBS build was “unresolvable”
- T7945 evolution-sync-bluetooth test fails
- T8175 License scan fails on package texlive-extra
- T8194 ci-license-scan prints final error paragraph in the middle of scan-copyrights output
- T8281 dashboard: gnome-settings-daemon-data incorrectly flagged as missing the git repository
- T8435 “Add ‘reserved-memory’ node failed: FDT_ERR_EXISTS” log during boot
- T8500 canterbury: test failed
- T8504 LAVA/Phab bridge timeouts
- T8516 apparmor-pipewire: test failed
- T8524 grilo: test failed
- T8572 Missing warning on coreutils overwrite
- T8613 apparmor-functional-demo: test failed
- T8622 Manual testcase results should not have any hyperlink in the LavaPhabridge report page
- T8629 frome: test failed
- T8634 Failed to start Access poi…server : logs seen in v2023dev1 Amd64 boot logs
- T8667 cgroups-resource-control: test failed
- T8668 Test apparmor-functional does not work properly on OSTree images