Apertis is a Debian derivative distribution geared towards the creation of product-specific images for ARM (both the 32bit ARMv7 and 64-bit ARMv8 versions using the hardfloat ABI) and Intel x86-64 (64-bit) systems.

Apertis v2022dev1 is the second development release of the Apertis v2022 stable release flow that will lead to the LTS Apertis v2022.0 release in March 2022.

This Apertis release is still built on top of Debian Buster with several customisations and the Linux kernel 5.10.x LTS series. From the next release the v2022 channel will be based on Debian Bullseye and will track newer kernel versions up to the next LTS scheduled at the end of 2021.

Test results for the v2022dev1 release are available in the following test reports:

Release flow

  • 2020 Q4: v2022dev0
  • 2021 Q1: v2022dev1
  • 2021 Q2: v2022dev2
  • 2021 Q3: v2022dev3
  • 2021 Q4: v2022pre
  • 2022 Q1: v2022.0
  • 2022 Q2: v2022.1
  • 2022 Q3: v2022.2
  • 2022 Q4: v2022.3
  • 2023 Q1: v2022.4
  • 2023 Q2: v2022.5
  • 2023 Q3: v2022.6
  • 2023 Q4: v2022.7

Release downloads

Apertis v2022dev1 images
Intel 64-bit minimal target base SDK SDK
ARM 32-bit (U-Boot) minimal target
ARM 64-bit (U-Boot) minimal
ARM 64-bit (Raspberry Pi) minimal target

The Intel minimal and target images are tested on the reference hardware (MinnowBoard Turbot Dual-Core), but they can run on any UEFI-based x86-64 system. The sdk image is tested under VirtualBox.

Apertis v2022dev1 repositories

deb https://repositories.apertis.org/apertis/ v2022dev1 target development sdk hmi


Replace GnuTLS/Nettle/GMP with GPL-3-free alternative on target images

Apertis has stricter licensing expectations than Debian, in particular around preventing GPL-3 code from being shipped on target devices. One of the many challenging topics is the use of the GnuTLS stack, as it depends on the GMP library which is released under a dual GPL-2/LGPL-3 license. This means that on Apertis devices the GnuTLS stack can only be used by GPL-2 programs, or the GPL-3 provisions would apply.

As a temporary solution to avoid that, previous releases shipped older version of the GnuTLS/GMP stack, prior to the change of license.

The License-compliant TLS stack for Apertis targets document analized the available options to move forward and describes why Apertis joins the ranks of Red Hat, Fedora and Debian in considering OpenSSL matching the GPL platform library exceptions and thus suitable to be linked from GPL programs.

For this reason from this releases a selection of packages has been switched from their GnuTLS backend to the OpenSSL one, to be later able to upgrade the GnuTLS stack without being restricted by the GPL-3 provisions.

Technology preview: Licensing reports for images

As part of the image building pipeline Apertis now also produces detailed reports listing the licenses covering the binaries shipped on each image.

The extracted information is stored in a per-image JSON file which documents the licenses that affect each binary program or library shipped in the image itself and that can be easily used to generate human-readable reports or to add automated checks to ensure compliance to licensing policies.

This is a sample output:

  "image_licenses": [
    "LGPL-2+", "BSD-3-clause", "NoLicenseReportFound", "GPL-2+",
    "BSD-3-clause or LGPL-2.1+", "Expat", "Sleepycat", "GPL-1+",
    "BSD-3-clause or LGPL-2+", "GPL-2", "OLDAP-2.8", "LGPL-2.1+",
    "GPL", "BSD-2-clause", "MPL-2.0", "public-domain",
    "BSD~unspecified", "LGPL", "BSD-4-clause", "LGPL-2"
  "packages": [
      "package_name": "systemd-boot",
      "package_licenses": [ "LGPL-2.1+" ],
      "binaries": [
          "binary_name": "usr/bin/bootctl",
          "binary_licenses": [ "LGPL-2.1+" ],
          "sources": []

Infrastructure status page

Apertis has a complex infrastructure with many services. When hitting issues it is helpful to check whether it is a local problem or if something is broken in the infrastructure itself.

To help developers diagnose these issues and to help administrators to promptly react on unscheduled downtimes some monitoring services have been reviewed and a status page keeping track of the health of all the Apertis services is now available at status.apertis.org stats.uptimerobot.com/R8MlxtrZXO.

Improved SDK persistent disk tests

The manual tests excercising the persistent SDK workspaces have been substantially improved.

They are now much easier to run as many previously manual steps are now automated, and they have also been made much more robust. This has been part of the ongoing effort to make our testing activities as efficient as possible,


Document strategies to deal with configuration files during updates and rollbacks

Dealing with configuration files during an update and during a rollback is a common problem for product teams.

The System updates and rollback document has been extended to discuss the known limitations and best practices of configuration management for those scenarios.

Uniform security using OP-TEE

OP-TEE is an open source project for a Trusted Execution Environment and, given the growing interest in the technology in the context of virtualization, the OP-TEE integration document has been extended to describe how Apertis and OP-TEE can work together beyond the simplest use cases.

The design document reflects the vision of uniform and consistent use across various scenarios including running on bare metal and running inside a virtual machine, with the technical and practical limitations to achieve this vision.

Evaluate GPL-3-free replacements of GnuPG

After the documents covering replacements for the GnuTLS stack and coreutils to match our licensing expectations, a new document does the same to replace GnuPG.

Plan for deployment management reference implementation

In addition to the documents covering the high level approach for software distribution and updates and how to handle that wiht hawkBit a new document describes the steps to move from the current experimental setup to a production-grade hawkBit deployment.

Deprecations and ABI/API breaks


No known regressions.


This is the last v2022 release based on Debian Buster: the next development release will switch to Debian Bullseye.


No known breaking changes are part of this release.


Apertis Docker images

The Apertis Docker images provide a unified and easily reproducible build environment for developers and services.

As of today, this includes the apertis-base, apertis-image-builder, apertis-package-source-builder, apertis-flatdeb-builder, apertis-documentation-builder, and apertis-testcases-builder, Docker images.

Apertis infrastructure tools

The Apertis v2022 infrastructure repository provides packages for the required versions of ostree-push and ostree for Debian Buster:

deb https://repositories.apertis.org/infrastructure-v2022/ buster infrastructure


Image daily builds, as well as release builds can be found at https://images.apertis.org/

Image build tools can be found in the Apertis tools repositories.

Infrastructure overview

The Apertis Image Recipes provides an overview of the image building process and the involved services.

Known issues

High (9)

  • T7014 bluez-phone: Message Access Profile test_profile_map_mse fails when there are many contacts
  • T7623 apparmor-pulseaudio: test failed
  • T7729 Failed to attach Bluetooth dongle on VirtualBox 6.1.16
  • T7781 aum-ota-api: test failed due to new bootcount test needing a newer uboot
  • T7783 ade-commands: test failed
  • T7801 agl-compositor test fails
  • T7802 flatpak install -y org.apertis.mildenhall.Platform org.apertis.mildenhall.Sdk
  • T7803 sdk-debos-image-building: test failed with “Failed to register machine: Unit machine-root.scope already exists”
  • T7816 Polling issues faced in apertis hawkbit agent

Normal (62)

  • T2896 Crash when initialising egl on ARM target
  • T2930 Develop test case for out of screen events in Wayland images
  • T3210 Fix Tracker testcase to not download media files from random HTTP user folders
  • T3233 Ribchester: deadlock when calling RemoveApp() right after RollBack()
  • T3321 libgles2-vivante-dev is not installable
  • T3920 arm-linux-gnueabihf-pkg-config does not work with sysroots installed by ade
  • T4092 Containers fail to load on Gen4 host
  • T4293 Preseed action is needed for Debos
  • T4307 ribchester-core causes apparmor denies on non-btrfs minimal image
  • T4422 do-branching fails at a late stage cloning OBS binary repos
  • T4444 A 2-3 second lag between the speakers is observed when a hfp connection is made over bluetooth
  • T4660 Eclipse Build is not working for HelloWorld App
  • T4693 Not able to create namespace for AppArmor container on the internal mx6qsabrelite images with proprietary kernel
  • T5487 Wi-Fi search button is missing in wifi application
  • T5748 System users are shipped in /usr/etc/passwd instead of /lib/passwd
  • T5863 Songs/Videos don’t play on i.MX6 with Frampton on internal images
  • T5896 sdk-dbus-tools-bustle testcase is failing
  • T5897 apparmor-ofono test fails
  • T5900 evolution-sync-bluetooth test fails
  • T5901 eclipse-plugins-apertis-management package is missing
  • T5906 Video does not stream in WebKit on the i.MX6 internal images
  • T5931 connman-usb-tethering test fails
  • T6001 eclipse-plugins-remote-debugging test fails
  • T6008 The pacrunner package used for proxy autoconfiguration is not available
  • T6024 folks-inspect: command not found
  • T6052 Multimedia playback is broken on the internal i.MX6 images (internal 3.14 ADIT kernel issue)
  • T6077 youtube Videos are not playing on upstream webkit2GTK
  • T6078 Page scroll is lagging in Minibrowser on upstream webkit2GTK
  • T6111 traprain: 7_traprain test failed
  • T6243 AppArmor ubercache support is no longer enabled after 18.12
  • T6291 Generated lavaphabbridge error report email provides wrong link for full report link
  • T6292 gettext-i18n: test failed
  • T6349 sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint: 3_sdk-code-analysis-tools-splint test failed
  • T6366 sdk-cross-compilation: 10_sdk-cross-compilation test failed
  • T6444 aum-update-rollback-tests/arm64,amd64: Automatic power cut test should be reworked to reduce the speed of delta read
  • T6446 aum-update-rollback-tests/amd64: DNS not available in LAVA tests after reboot
  • T6620 Repeatedly plugging and unplugging a USB flash drive on i.MX6 (Sabrelite) results in USB failure
  • T6662 SDK: command-not-found package is broken
  • T6669 Stop building cross compilers tools and libraries for not supported platforms
  • T6768 Fix the kernel command line generation in OSTRee for FIT image
  • T6773 HAB testing: the unsigned image may pass validation in several circumstances
  • T6783 Kernel trace on armhf board with attached screen
  • T6795 SabreLite failing to boot due to failing “to start udev Coldplug all Devices”
  • T6806 HAB on SabreLite in open state accepts any signed kernel regardless of the signing key
  • T6885 gitlab-rulez fails to set location of the gitlab-ci.yaml on first run
  • T6887 ARM64 target does not reboot automatically
  • T6961 audio-backhandling feature fails
  • T7000 DNS resolution does not work in Debos on some setups
  • T7012 Apparmor Denied session logs keep popping up on the terminal while executing tests
  • T7016 network proxy for browser application is not resolving on mildenhall-compositor
  • T7127 apparmor-functional-demo: test failed
  • T7128 apparmor-session-lockdown-no-deny
  • T7129 apparmor-tumbler: test failed
  • T7333 apparmor-geoclue: test failed
  • T7503 Failed to unmount /usr on ostree-based images: Device or resource busy log is seen on rebooting
  • T7512 debos sometimes fails to mount things
  • T7617 frome: test failed
  • T7721 Fakemachine in debos immediately powers off and hangs in v2021 and v2022dev1 when using UML on the runners
  • T7776 On executing system-update test on hawkbit-agent wrong delta is selected
  • T7785 DNS over TLS does not work on systemd-resolve
  • T7812 The dlt-daemon build in the devroot testcase fails due to lack of pandoc on Arm platforms
  • T7815 scan-copyright fails to detect (L)GPL-3 code in util-linux